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Proteomic approach of adaptive response to arsenic stress in Exiguobacterium sp. S17, an extremophile strain isolated from a high-altitude Andean Lake stromatolite.
The North-Western part of Argentina is particularly rich in wetlands located in the Puna in an altitude between 3,600 and 4,600 m above sea level. Most of these high-altitude Andean lakes are inhospitable areas due to extreme habitat conditions such as high contents of toxic elements, particularly arsenic. Exiguobacterium sp. S17, isolated from stromatolites in Laguna Socompa, exhibited remarkable tolerance to high arsenicconcentration, i.e., it tolerated arsenic concentration such as 10 mM of As(III) and 150 mM of As(V). A proteomics approach was conducted to reveal the mechanisms that provide the observed outstanding resistance of Exiguobacterium sp. S17 against arsenic. A comparative analysis of S17, exposed and unexposed to arsenic revealed 25 differentially expressed proteins. Identification of these proteins was performed by MALDI-TOF/MS revealing upregulation of proteins involved in energy metabolism, stress, transport, and in protein synthesis being expressed under arsenicstress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first proteomic study of arsenic tolerance in an Exiguobacterium strain.

Carbon metabolism of peach fruit after harvest: changes in enzymes involved in organic acid and sugar level modifications
Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a climacteric fruit that ripens after harvest, prior to human consumption. Organic acids and soluble sugars contribute to the overall organoleptic quality of fresh peach; thus, the integrated study of the metabolic pathways controlling the levels of these compounds is of great relevance. Therefore, in this work, several metabolites and enzymes involved in carbon metabolism were analysed during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit cv ‘Dixiland’. Depending on the enzyme studied, activity, protein level by western blot, or transcript level by quantitative real time-PCR were analysed. Even though sorbitol did not accumulate at a high level in relation to sucrose at harvest, it was rapidly consumed once the fruit was separated from the tree. During the ripening process, sucrose degradation was accompanied by an increase of glucose and fructose. Specific transcripts encoding neutral invertases (NIs) were up-regulated or down-regulated, indicating differential functions for each putative NI isoform. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase was markedly induced, and may participate as a glycolytic shunt, since the malate level did not increase during post-harvest ripening. The fermentative pathway was highly induced, with increases in both the acetaldehyde level and the enzymes involved in this process. In addition, proteins differentially expressed during the post-harvest ripening process were also analysed. Overall, the present study identified enzymes and pathways operating during the post-harvest ripening of peach fruit, which may contribute to further identification of varieties with altered levels of enzymes/metabolites or in the evaluation of post-harvest treatments to produce fruit of better organoleptic attributes.

Heat treatment of peach fruit: Modifications in the extracellular compartment and identification of novel extracellular proteins
Ripening of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) fruit is accompanied by dramatic cell wall changes that lead to softening. Post-harvest heat treatment is effective in delaying softening and preventing some chilling injury symptoms that this fruit exhibits after storage at low temperatures. In the present work, the levels of twelve transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism, as well as the differential extracellular proteome, were examined after a post-harvest heat treatment (HT; 39 C for 3 days) of “Dixiland” peach fruit. A typical softening behaviour, in correlation with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase-1 (PpACO1), was observed for peach maintained at 20 C for 3 days (R3). Six transcripts encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism significantly increased in R3 with respect to peach at harvest, while six showed no modification or even decreased. In contrast, after HT, fruit maintained their firmness, exhibiting low PpACO1 level and significant lower levels of the twelve cell wall-modifying genes than in R3. Differential proteomic analysis of apoplastic proteins during softening and after HT revealed a significant decrease of DUF642 proteins after HT; as well as an increase of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPC) after softening. The presence of GAPC in the peach extracellular matrix was further confirmed by in situ immunolocalization and transient expression in tomato fruit. Though further studies are required to establish the function of DUF642 and GAPC in the apoplast, this study contributes to a deeper understanding of the events during peach softening and after HT with a focus on this key compartment.

Plant Hsp90 Proteins Interact with B-Cells and Stimulate Their Proliferation
Background: The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an important role in folding stabilization and activation of client proteins. Besides, Hsp90 of mammals and mammalian pathogens displays immunostimulatory properties. Here, we investigated the role of plant-derived Hsp90s as B-cell mitogens by measuring their proliferative responses in vitro. 
Methodology: Plant cytosolic Hsp90 isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHsp81.2) and Nicotiana benthamiana (NbHsp90.3) were expressed in E. coli. Over-expression of recombinant plant Hsp90s (rpHsp90s) was confirmed by SDSPAGE and western blot using and anti-AtHsp81.2 polyclonal anti-body. Both recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and their identity confirmed by MALDI-TOF-TOF. Recombinant AtHsp81.2 and NbHsp90.3 proteins induced prominent proliferative responses in spleen cells form BALB/c mice. Polymyxin-B, a potent inhibitor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), did not eliminate the rpHsp90-induced proliferation. In addition, in vitro incubation of spleen cells with rpHsp90 led to the expansion of CD19-bearing populations, suggesting a direct effect of these proteins on B lymphocytes. This effect was confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis, where a direct binding of rpHsp90 to B- but not to T-cells was observed in cells from BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice. Finally, we examined the involvement of Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) molecules in the rpHsp90s induction of B-cell proliferation. Spleen cells from C3H/HeJ mice, which carry a point mutation in the cytoplasmic region of TLR4, responded poorly to prAtHsp90. However, the interaction between rpHsp90 and B-cells from C3H/HeJ mice was not altered, suggesting that the mutation on TLR4 would be affecting the signal cascade but not the rpHsp90-TLR4 receptor interaction.
Conclusions: Our results show for the first time that spleen cell proliferation can be stimulated by a non-pathogen-derived Hsp90. Furthermore, our data provide a new example of a non-pathogen-derived ligand for TLRs.

Endocytosis and Intracellular Dissociation Rates of Human Insulin−Insulin Receptor Complexes by Quantum Dots in Living Cells
Insulin signaling is involved in glucose metabolism, cellular growth, and differentiation. Its function is altered in diabetes and many cancer types. Insulin binding to insulin receptor (IR) triggers diverse signaling pathways. However, signal transduction by IR is not mediated exclusively at the cell surface. Activated ligand−receptor complexes are internalized into endosomes from which the IR recruits adapters acting on substrates that are distinct from those accessible at the membrane. We report the biotinylation of humanrecombinant insulin (rhIns) specifically at the position 29 of the B
chain. We combined visible fluorescent proteins fused to IR and biotinylated rhIns conjugated with streptavidin−quantum dots to perform extended, quantitative experiments in real time. Modified rhIns bound to the IR and conjugated with the quantum dots was internalized with a rate constant (k) of 0.009 min−1. Dissociation of insulin-IR complex in endocytosed vesicles occurred with k = 0.006 min−1.

Hydrophobic proteins secreted into the apoplast may contribute to resistance against Phytophthora infestans in potato
During plantepathogen interaction, oomycetes secrete effectors into the plant apoplast where they interact with host resistance proteins, which are accumulated after wounding or infection. Previous studies showed that the expression profile of pathogenesis related proteins is proportional to the resistance of different cultivars toward Phytophthora infestans infection. The aim of this work was to analyze the expression pattern of apoplastic hydrophobic proteins (AHPs), after 24 h of wounding or infection, in tubers from two potato cultivars with different resistance to P. infestans, Spunta (susceptible) and Innovator (resistant). Intercellular washing fluid (IWF) was extracted from tubers and chromatographed into a PepRPC HR5-5 column in FPLC eluted with a linear gradient of 75% acetonitrile. Then, AHPs were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF-MS. Innovator cv. showed a higher basal AHP content compared to Spunta cv. In the latter, infection induced accumulation of patatins and protease inhibitors (PIs), whereas in Innovator cv. no changes in PIs accumulation were observed. In response to P. infestans infection, lipoxygenase, enolase, annexin p34 and glutarredoxin/cyclophilin were accumulated in both cultivars. These results suggest that the AHPs content may be related to the protection against the oomycete and with the degree of potato resistance to pathogens. Additionally, a considerable number of the proteins putatively identified lacked the signal peptide and, being SecretomeP positive, suggest unconventional protein secretion.

Induction of eryptosis by low concentrations of E. coli alpha-hemolysin
Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli deliver the toxin alpha-hemolysin (HlyA) to optimize the host environment for the spread of infection. It was reported that at high concentrations, the toxin forms pores in eukaryotic membranes, leading to cell lysis,while lower concentrations have appeared to interfere with host–cell-signaling pathways causing cell death by apoptosis. Nevertheless, what is not clear is how often HlyA reaches levels that are high enough to lyse host target cells during the course of an infection. In the present investigation, we demonstrate that a lowtoxin concentration induces the suicidal death of erythrocytes (eryptosis), the major cell type present in blood. Eryptosis is triggered both by an increment in intracellular calcium and by ceramide. Since we have previously demonstrated that a low concentration of HlyA induces an increase in intraerythrocyte calcium, in the present experiments we have shown that this ion activates calpains, which hydrolyze skeleton proteins such as spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.1 and the electrophoretic Band-3 species, thus resulting in morphologic changes in the erythrocytes. We furthermore observed that a low toxin concentration induced the activation of endogenous sphingomyelinases that in turn increased the amount of ceramide in erythrocyte membranes. Both spectrin proteolysis and ceramide formation may cause the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the membrane so as to trigger a macrophage engulfment of the erythrocyte. By this means eryptosis may be an advantageous mechanism for removing defective erythrocytes before hemolysis.

Biochemical and proteomic analysis of ‘Dixiland’ peach fruit (Prunus persica) upon heat treatment
Shipping of peaches to distant markets and storage require low temperature; however, cold storage affects fruit quality causing physiological disorders collectively termed ‘chilling injury’ (CI). In order to ameliorate CI, different strategies have been applied before cold storage; among them heat treatment (HT) has been widely used. In this work, the effect of HT on peach fruit quality as well as on carbon metabolism was evaluated. When fruit were exposed to 39 C for 3 d, ripening was delayed, with softening inhibition and slowing down of ethylene production. Several differences were observed between fruit ripening at ambient temperature versus fruit that had been heat treated. However, the major effects of HT on carbon metabolism and organoleptic characteristics were reversible, since normal fruit ripening was restored after transferring heated peaches to ambient temperature. Positive quality features such as an increment in the fructose content, largely responsible for the sweetness, and reddish coloration were observed. Nevertheless, high amounts of acetaldehyde and low organic acid content were also detected. The differential proteome of heated fruit was characterized, revealing that heat-induced CI tolerance may be acquired by the activation of different molecular mechanisms. Induction of related stress proteins in the heat-exposed fruits such as heat shock proteins, cysteine proteases, and dehydrin, and repression of a polyphenol oxidase provide molecular evidence of candidate proteins that may prevent some of the CI symptoms. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the cellular events in peach under HT in view of a possible technological use aimed to improve organoleptic and shelf-life features.

New Evidence for Differential Roles of L10 Ribosomal Proteins from Arabidopsis
The RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L10 (RPL10) is an integral component of the eukaryotic ribosome large subunit. Besides being a constituent of ribosomes and participating in protein translation, additional extraribosomal functions in the nucleus have been described for RPL10 in different organisms. Previously, we demonstrated that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RPL10 genes are involved in development and translation under ultraviolet B (UV-B) stress. In this work, transgenic plants expressing ProRPL10:b-glucuronidase fusions show that, while AtRPL10A and AtRPL10B are expressed both in the female and male reproductive organs, AtRPL10C expression is restricted to pollen grains. Moreover, the characterization of double rpl10 mutants indicates that the three AtRPL10s differentially contribute to the total RPL10 activity in the male gametophyte. All three AtRPL10 proteinsmainly accumulate in the cytosol but also in the nucleus, suggesting extraribosomal functions. After UV-B treatment, only AtRPL10B localization increases in the nuclei. We also here demonstrate that the three AtRPL10 genes can complement a yeast RPL10 mutant. Finally, the involvement of RPL10B and RPL10C in UV-B responses was analyzed by two-dimensional gels followed by mass spectrometry. Overall, our data provide new evidence about the nonredundant roles of RPL10 proteins in Arabidopsis.

Heme-oxygenase-1 implications in cell morphology and the adhesive behavior of prostate cancer cells.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Although previous studies in PCa have focused on cell adherens junctions (AJs), key players in metastasis, they have left the molecular mechanisms unexplored. Inflammation and the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical in the regulation of cell adhesion and the integrity of the epithelium. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative and inflammatory damage. Here, we investigated whether HO-1 is implicated in the adhesive and morphological properties of tumor cells. Genes differentially regulated by HO-1 were enriched for cell motility and adhesion biological processes. HO-1 induction, increased E-cadherin and β-catenin levels. Immunofluorescence analyses showed a striking remodeling of E-cadherin/ β-catenin based AJs under HO-1 modulation. Interestingly, the enhanced levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin coincided with a markedly change in cell morphology. To further our analysis we sought to identify HO-1 binding proteins that might participate in the regulation of cell morphology. A proteomics approach identified Muskelin, as a novel HO-1 partner, strongly implicated in cell morphology regulation. These results define a novel role for HO-1 in modulating the architecture of cell-cell interactions, favoring a less aggressive phenotype and further supporting its anti-tumoral function in PCa

Mmp1 processing of the PDF neuropeptide regulates circadian structural plasticity of pacemaker neurons.
In the Drosophila brain, the neuropeptide PIGMENT DISPERSING FACTOR (PDF) is expressed in the small and large Lateral ventral neurons (LNvs) and regulates circadian locomotor behavior. Interestingly, PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals changes across the day as synaptic contacts do as a result of a remarkable remodeling of sLNv projections. Despite the relevance of this phenomenon to circuit plasticity and behavior, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work we provide evidence that PDF along with matrix metalloproteinases (Mmp1 and 2) are key in the control of circadian structural remodeling. Adult-specific downregulation of PDF levels per se hampers circadian axonal remodeling, as it does altering Mmp1 or Mmp2 levels within PDF neurons post-developmentally. However, only Mmp1 affects PDF immunoreactivity at the dorsal terminals and exerts a clear effect on overt behavior. In vitro analysis demonstrated that PDF is hydrolyzed by Mmp1, thereby suggesting that Mmp1 could directly terminate its biological activity. These data demonstrate that Mmp1 modulates PDF processing, which leads to daily structural remodeling and circadian behavior.

The E3 ubiquitin-ligase SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 mono-ubiquitinates glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 isoform in vitro and is required for its nuclear localization in Arabidopsis thaliana
The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases are associated to various processes such as cell cycle control and diverse developmental pathways. Arabidopsis thaliana SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7, which has ubiquitin ligase activity, is located in the nucleus and cytosol and is expressed at several stages in almost all plant tissues suggesting an important role in plant functions. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of this protein is unknown. Since we found that the SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 gene expression is altered in plants with impaired mitochondria, and in plants deficient in the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1, we decided to study the possible interactions between both proteins as potential partners in plant signaling functions. We found that SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 is able to interact in vitro with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and that the Lys231 residue of the last is essential for this function. Following the interaction, a concomitant increase in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase catalytic activity was observed. However, when SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7 was supplemented with E1 and E2 proteins to form a complete E1-E2-E3 modifier complex, we observed the mono-ubiquitination of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 at the Lys76 residue and a dramatic decrease of its catalytic activity. Moreover, we found that localization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the nucleus is dependent on the expression SEVEN IN ABSENTIA like 7. These observations suggest that the association of both proteins might result in different biological consequences in plants either through affecting the glycolytic flux or via cytoplasm-nucleus relocation

Functional characterization of residues involved in redox modulation of maize photosynthetic NADP-malic enzyme activity.
Two highly similar plastidic NADP-malic enzymes (NADP-MEs) are found in the C(4) species maize (Zea mays); one exclusively expressed in the bundle sheath cells (BSCs) and involved in C(4) photosynthesis (ZmC(4)-NADP-ME); and the other (ZmnonC(4)-NADP-ME) with housekeeping roles. In the present work, these two NADP-MEs were analyzed regarding their redox-dependent activity modulation. The results clearly show that ZmC(4)-NADP-ME is the only one modulated by redox status, and that its oxidation produces a conformational change limiting the catalytic process, although inducing higher affinity binding of the substrates. The reversal of ZmC(4)-NADP-ME oxidation by chemical reductants suggests the presence of thiol groups able to form disulfide bonds. In order to identify the cysteine residues involved in the activity modulation, site-directed mutagenesis and MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight) analysis of ZmC(4)-NADP-ME were performed. The results obtained allowed the identification of Cys192, Cys246 (not conserved in ZmnonC(4)-NADP-ME), Cys270 and Cys410 as directly or indirectly implicated in ZmC(4)-NADP-ME redox modulation. These residues may be involved in forming disulfide bridge(s) or in the modulation of the oxidation of critical residues. Overall, the results indicate that, besides having acquired a high level of expression and localization in BSCs, ZmC(4)-NADP-ME displays a particular redox modulation, which may be required to accomplish the C(4) photosynthetic metabolism. Therefore, the present work could provide new insights into the regulatory mechanisms potentially involved in the recruitment of genes for the C(4) pathway during evolution.

Potential aquaculture probiont Lactococcus lactis TW34 produces nisin Z and inhibits the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae
Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis TW34 was isolated from marine fish. TW34 bacteriocin inhibited the growth of the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae at 5 AU/ml (minimum inhibitory concentration), whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration was 10 AU/ml. Addition of TW34 bacteriocin to L. garvieae cultures resulted in a decrease of six orders of magnitude of viable cells counts demonstrating a bactericidal mode of action. The direct detection of the bacteriocin activity by Tricine-SDS-PAGE showed an active peptide with a molecular mass ca. 4.5 kDa. The analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS detected a strong signal at m/z 2,351.2 that corresponded to the nisin leader peptide mass without the initiating methionine, whose sequence STKDFNLDLVSVSKKDSGASPR was confirmed by MS/MS. Sequence analysis of nisin structural gene confirmed that L. lactis TW34 was a nisin Z producer. This nisin Z-producing strain with probiotic properties might be considered as an alternative in the prevention of lactococcosis, a global disease in aquaculture systems.

Expression and characterization of human proinsulin fused to thioredoxin in Escherichia coli.
Native proinsulin (PI) belongs to the class of the difficult-to-express proteins in Escherichia coli. Problems mainly arise due to its high proteolytic decay and troubles to reproduce the native disulphide pattern. In the present study, human PI was produced in E. coli as a fusion thioredoxin protein (Trx-PI). Such chimeric protein was obtained from the intracellular soluble fraction, and it was purified in one step by affinity chromatography on immobilized phenylarsine oxide. Trx-PI was also recovered from inclusion bodies and purified by anion exchange chromatography. The product identity and integrity were verified by mass analysis (22,173.5 Da) and mapping with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease. Native PI folding was evaluated by biochemical and also by immunochemical analysis using specific sera from PI antibody-positive diabetic patients that recognise conformational discontinue epitopes. Dose-response curves showed identity between standard PI and Trx-PI. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance technique verified the correct conformation of the recombinant protein. The biochemical and immunochemical assays demonstrated the integrity of the chimera and the epitopes involved in the interaction with antibodies. In conclusion, it was possible to obtain with high-yield purified human PI as a fusion protein in E. coli and useful for analytical purposes.

 
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